Solanaceae tomato potato family 85 96 2800 cosmopolitan best developed in south american tropics
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Asteridae. Solanaceae -- tomato/potato family (85-96/2800; Cosmopolitan, best developed in South American tropics). Habit herbs, shrubs and trees Leaves mostly alternate; simple to deeply divided or once or twice pinnate; estipulate Inflorescences cymose or solitary

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Solanaceae tomato potato family 85 96 2800 cosmopolitan best developed in south american tropics

Asteridae

Solanaceae -- tomato/potato family (85-96/2800; Cosmopolitan, best developed in South American tropics)

  • Habit herbs, shrubs and trees

  • Leaves mostly alternate; simple to deeply divided or once or twice pinnate; estipulate

  • Inflorescences cymose or solitary

  • Special floral charactersflower perfect and actinomorphic; anthers often connivent around style (Solanum) and dehiscing by terminal pores

  • Calyx 5 (4-7) sepals distinct or connate

  • Corolla 5 (4-7) petals connate (=sympetalous); actinomorphic

  • Androecium 5 (2, 4-7) stamens, filaments adnate to petals (=epipetalous); some with poricidal dehiscence

  • Gynoecium 2 (3-5) carpels; connate; superior (rarely half inferior); 2 locules with manyaxileovules in each locule OR 1 locule with many parietal ovules; style simple or only scarcely lobed

  • Fruit= berry or septicidal capsule

  • (Floral formula: Ca 5 Co 5 A 5 G 2 )


Solanaceae comments

Asteridae

Solanaceae --comments

Comments: Many important cultivated members including: tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), potato (Solanum tuberosum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), peppers (Capsicum spp.), tobacco (Nicotiana), and petunias (Petunia).

Various members contain high contents of alkoloids and the name Nightshade probably derives from the potentially lethal side of these. Belladonna means “pretty lady” and women used to dose themselves with an extract of this plant to dilate their eyes and appear more desirable. Mandrake (Mandragon), nicotine (tobacco), and Jimson-weed (Datura) are all members of this family.


Asteridae

Scrophulariaceae -- the figwort or monkey flower family (190/ 4000; Cosmopolitan, most abundant in temperate regions and tropical alpine habitats)

  • Habit herbs, less frequently shrubs or trees

  • Leaves alternate, opposite or whorled; simple to deeply divided or compound; estipulate

  • Inflorescencesoften racemose or cymose

  • Special floral characters flowers perfect and zygomorphic, tubular corolla, anthers 4 (2+2, filaments unequal) and sometimes with a staminode (if present often pubescent).

  • Calyx 5 sepals, distinct or variously connate; zygomorphic

  • Corolla 5 petals, connate (=sympetalous), zygomorphic, often bilabiate

  • Androecium 4 or 2 (5) stamens, distinct; filaments adnate to corolla (=epipetalous)

  • Gynoecium 2 carpels; connate; superior; 2 locules with 2-many axile ovules/locule; 1 style with bilobed stigma

  • Fruit= mostly a septicidal capsule

  • (Floral formula: Ca 5 Co 5 A 4 or 2 G 2 )


Scrophulariaceae comments

Asteridae

Scrophulariaceae -- comments

Some genera: Aragoa, Bacopa, Bartsia, Calceolaria, Castilleja, Lindernia, Mimulus, Pedicularis, Verbascum, Veronica.

Comments:The Orobanchaceae is generally considered the parasitic/saprophytic counterpart/sistergroup to the Scrophulariaceae and sometimes treated as a subfamily within Scrophulariaceae. Indian paintbrush (Castilleja), a partial root parasite, is an example of a scroph that links the two families together. The Scrophulariaceae is important for its the production of cardiac glycosides from Digitalis (foxglove) and for ornamentals which include items such as veronica (Veronica), penstemons (Penstemon), butter and eggs (Linaria), monkey flowers (Mimulus), slipper flower (Calceolaria), etc.


Lamiaceae the mint family 200 2000 cosmopolitan especially common in mediterranean habitats

Asteridae

Lamiaceae -- the mint family (200/ 2000; Cosmopolitan, especially common in Mediterranean habitats)

  • Habitaromatic, punctate herbs, less frequently shrubs or trees

  • Leavesopposite or rarely whorled; simple to deeply divided or pinnate; estipulate; terete (square) stems

  • Inflorescences axillary cymes or verticils, sometimes headlike or solitary, various

  • Special floral charactersbilabiate corolla with 4 stamens fused to the petals, gynobasic style, and 4-lobed ovary that matures into nutlets

  • Calyx 5 sepals, variously connate; zygomorphic

  • Corolla 5 petals, connate (=sympetalous), zygomorphic, often bilabiate

  • Androecium 4 or 2 stamens, distinct; filaments adnate to corolla(=epipetalous)

  • Gynoecium 2 basally connate carpels (appear as four because of a false septum); superior; 4-lobed or divided into 4 locules with 1 basal-axile ovule/ locule; 1 gynobasic style, 2-lobed near apex

  • Fruit= schizocarp which splits into four nutlets

  • (Floral formula: Ca 5 Co 5 A 4 or 2 G 2 )


Rubiaceae the madder or coffee family 450 606 6500 mostly tropical

b- family Asteridae

Rubiaceae -- the madder or coffee family (450-606/ 6500; Mostly tropical)

  • Habit herbs, shrubs, woody vines or trees

  • Leaves opposite or whorled; simple; stipulate; stipules aften fused together, forming interpetiolar stipules

  • Inflorescences variously cymose, sometimes solitary or in heads

  • Special floral characters flowers perfect, regular, often showy

  • Calyx 4 or5 sepals, connate or distinct

  • Corolla 4 or 5 petals, connate (=sympetalous), actinomorphic

  • Androecium4 or 5 stamens, distinct; filaments adnate to corolla (=epipetalous)

  • Gynoecium 2 carpels, connate; inferior ovary; 2 locules with many axile ovules/locule; 1 style, undivided

  • Fruit= berry, drupe, capsule, or schizocarp

  • (Floral formula: Ca 4-5 Co 4-5 A 4-5 G 2 )


Asteraceae the sunflower family 1400 1540 20 000 23 000 cosmopolitan

Asteridae

Asteraceae -- the sunflower family (1400-1540/ 20,000-23,000; Cosmopolitan)

  • Habit herbs or shrubs (woody vines, stem-succulents, or trees)

  • Leaves alternate or opposite; simple to bipinnate; estipulate

  • Inflorescencesinvolucral heads, indeterminate (with oldest flowers to outside), often 2° aggregated into various cymose clusters, sometimes racemose clusters

  • Special floral characterssmall flowers (florets) clustered together on a receptacle subtended by involucral bracts (phyllaries). Some florets subtended by receptacular bracts (chaff scales or paleae)

  • Calyx modified into a pappus, extremely variable in features, maybe absent

  • Corolla 5 petals, connate (=sympetalous); actinomorphic to strongly zygomorphic

  • Androecium 5 stamens; filament distinct with anthers connate into a tube surrounding the style; filaments adnate to corolla(=epipetalous). Anthers dehisce to the inside of the anther tube, anther sacs can be modified apically or basally with appendages

  • Gynoecium 2 carpels, connate; inferior; with 1 locule and 1 basal ovule; 1 style usually branched near apex. Style elongates as flower opens, and presents pollen brushed from the anther tube.

  • Fruit= achene

  • (Floral formula: Ca x(0) Co 5 A 5 G 2 )


Asteraceae comments

Asteridae

Asteraceae --comments

  • Flowers you will see in today’s lab:

    • Disk flowers: actinomorphic or bilabiate; usually perfect; can be in heads by themselves or with other kinds of flowers.

    • Ray flowers: strongly zygomorphic (3-lobed); usually imperfect or sterile; always borne in heads with disk flowers

    • Ligulate flowers: strongly zygomorphic (5-lobed); always perfect; usually borne in heads by themselves

  • Check text for two others not seen today


Asteraceae comments1

Asteridae

Asteraceae --comments

  • For such a large family (second largest flowering plant family), relatively few members are of major economic importance:

    • Vegetables: lettuce (Lactuca sativa)

    • endive (Cichorium endiva)

    • artichoke (Cynara scolymus)

    • Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus)

    • Seeds/oil: sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

    • safflower (Carthamus baeticus)

    • niger seed (Guizotia abyssinica)

    • Ornamentals: chrysanthemums (Dendranthema spp.)

    • marigolds (Tagetes spp.)

    • pot marigold (Calendula spp.)

    • bachelor’s buttons (Centaurea cyanus)

    • Cosmos, Dahlia, Ageratum, Gazania, Helianthus, Zinnia

    • No Fun: Ambrosia spp. (ragweeds) MAJOR cause of hayfever suffering

    • Dandelions (Taraxacum officinale): bane of crochet and golf greens


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