Tomato production, processing and technology, Third edition , 1992, W A Gould, Woodhead Publishing Limited.
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with slightly more fructose than glucose. Sucrose
concentration is unimportant in tomatoes and
rarely exceeds 0.1%.
contribute more to the American diet.
(absorbed into the blood) lycopene than fresh tomatoes when both are consumed with corn
paste, whole, sliced, or diced tomatoes is shown in
determine the price paid to the farmer.
USDA graders or hold an annual grading school to
train their graders.
categories A, B, C, and culls.
of what percentage of the surface is red, or with
an electronic colorimeter on a composite raw juice
mold, and decay.
graded on the basis of color, firmness, defects, and
juice and used in a colorimeter with a correlation equation to convert it to the Munsell scale.
dirt removal; however, surfactants have been shown to promote infiltration of some bacteria into the tomato fruit by reducing the surface tension at the pores.
sorter, especially in small plants, is an inclined belt.
round fruit rolls down the belt and into a water
are carried up by the belt and dropped into a
every plant to remove the green and pink tomatoes.
between conveyor belts in front of the sensor.
juice does not adversely affect the quality.
crushed tomato line.
more frequently, by hand, to remove the stem scar.
small cores so that this step is no longer needed.
practiced in the United States due to the high cost of
the pectolytic enzymes polygalacturonase
(PG) and pectin methylesterase (PME).
lower viscosity is a special advantage in tomato juice and juice-based drinks.
are put through an extractor, pulper, or finisher to
remove the seeds and skins.
the screw and the screen. The screw is continually
expanding along its length, forcing the tomato pulp
through the screen.
during breaking or extraction is frequently the next
soon as possible, because oxidation occurs rapidly at
at high pressure, shredding the suspended
increases product viscosity.
and most modern equipment now uses four effects.
successive effect. A typical range is 48–82°C.
paste and remanufacture it by mixing it with water,
particulates, and spices to create the desired sauce.
during the tomato season, but this is less common.
equipment in tomato processing plants that would
otherwise be unused.
there are some unpeeled salsas.
attack on the plant and so are not typically used by growers.
the time required, and the more complete the peel removal.
mushiness in the fruit due to cooking.
used as fertilizer or animal feed or processed into other products, such as lycopene extract.
at 85–100°C for 30 seconds, followed by holding for
30–60 seconds to allow the lye to react.
causes the cells to separate from each other, or rupture, causing the peel to come off.
is detrimental to soil quality.
sodium hydroxide to produce the same result.
added to the lye bath to improve peeling.