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Chemistry Notes. Atom – the building blocks of matter Element – Elements are made up of atoms. Any substance that contains only one kind of an atom. Examples: hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, sodium, chlorine Compound – two or more elements that have combined

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Chemistry Notes

Atom – the building blocks of matter

Element– Elements are made up of atoms. Any substance that contains only one kind of an atom.

Examples: hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, sodium, chlorine

Compound– two or more elements that have combined

Examples: table salt, water, carbon dioxide

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Chemical formula – shorthand way of describing a chemical compound.Examples: NaCl H2O CO2

Electron-Dot diagram – way to represent molecules and compounds

Valence electrons are in the outermost energy level and are represented as dots around an element’s symbol

Examples: H C O Na Cl

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Basic Rules for Naming Compounds

When you have two different elements, there are usually only two words in the compound name. The first word is the name of the first element. The second word tells you the second element and how many atoms there are in the compound. The second word also ends in IDE. That's the suffix. When you are working with non-metals like oxygen (O) and chlorine (Cl), the prefix of the second element changes based on how many atoms there are in the compound.

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Carbon Monoxide = 1 carbon, 1 oxygen

Carbon Dioxide = 1 carbon, 2 oxygen

Carbon Tetrachloride = 1 carbon, 4 chlorine

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Chemical bonds

3 types of chemical bonds

  • Covalent bond – share valence electrons(nonmetal bonds nonmetal)example: CO2

  • Ionic bond – transfer valence electrons(nonmetal bonds with metal)example: NaCl

  • Metallic bond – electrons are shared among many atoms(copper and zinc bond to make BRASS)

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Chemical Reactions = a chemical change in which molecules rearrange to produce a new substance.

Evidence of a chemical reaction

Bubbles, Heat released, Heat absorbed, Light, or Color change

In EVERY chemical reaction, energy is absorbed or released.

Endothermic reaction is when energy is absorbed. Ex: cold pack, refrigerator, or photosynthesis, ice cream in a baggie

Exothermic reaction is when energy is released. Ex: hot pack, digestion, fireworks

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Catalyst = speeds up a chemical reactionExamples: Enzymes in your body, catalytic converter in cars, or salt causing rust on a car to speed up

Inhibitor = slows down a chemical reactionExamples: food preservatives, antibiotics or some paints or oils slow down rusting.

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Chemical Equation = is a sentence that describes what happens in a reaction. (needs to be balanced on both sides)


Reactant: substance you start with

Product: substance you end with

means produces

+ means and

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1) Respirationoxygen + glucose sugar carbon dioxide + water + heat energy6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6H2O + heat energy

2) Photosynthesis chlorophyll carbon dioxide + water +light energy glucose sugar + oxygen6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy 6O2 + C6H12O6

  • lighthydrogen peroxide oxygen + water4H2O2 2O2 + 4H2O

  • acid + base salt + water

    5) wood + oxygen + (energy) carbon dioxide + water + (energy)

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Rates of Chemical Reactions

The rate of a reaction is the speed at which a reaction happens. If a reaction has a low rate, that means the molecules combine at a slower speed than a reaction with a high rate.

Concentration, pressure and temperature can effect the rate of the reaction.