The global water and sanitation challenge progress in meeting the millennium development goals
Download
1 / 36

The global water and sanitation challenge: progress in meeting the Millennium Development Goals - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 130 Views
  • Uploaded on

The global water and sanitation challenge: progress in meeting the Millennium Development Goals. Keynote address at Focusing Arizona’s Water Research (Arizona Water & Pollution Control Association, Arizona Water Institute), Phoenix, Oct. 29, 2008. THE GLOBAL WATER AND SANITATION CHALLENGE

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' The global water and sanitation challenge: progress in meeting the Millennium Development Goals' - hester


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
The global water and sanitation challenge progress in meeting the millennium development goals

The global water and sanitation challenge: progress in meeting the Millennium Development Goals

Keynote address at Focusing Arizona’s Water Research (Arizona Water & Pollution Control Association, Arizona Water Institute), Phoenix, Oct. 29, 2008.


THE GLOBAL WATER AND SANITATION CHALLENGE meeting the Millennium Development Goals

Progress in Meeting the Millennium Development Goals

Christopher Scott

University of Arizona

[email protected]


THE CRISIS meeting the Millennium Development Goals

Acknowledgment:

Anthony Rock, Arizona State University [email protected]


HEALTH meeting the Millennium Development Goals

- 50% of world’s hospital beds from water-related illness

- diarrhea kills 1.8 million / year (17% under age 5 children’s deaths in developing world)

ECONOMIC PRODUCTIVITY

-diarrhea alone accounts for annual loss of 62 million Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs)

- meeting MDG’s can save $90 million annually

- each dollar invested in supply and sanitation yields $3-34 return


THE CHALLENGE meeting the Millennium Development Goals


  • Contribution of Water/Sanitation meeting the Millennium Development Goals

  • to Millennium Development Goals

  • (targets to achieve by 2015)

  • • MDG 1 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger                       30% • MDG 2 Achieve universal primary education                          30% • MDG 3 Promote gender equality and empower women         20% • MDG 4 Reduce child mortality                                               30% • MDG 5 Improve maternal health                                            45% • MDG 6 Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases         25% • MDG 7 Ensure environmental sustainability        >50%

  • MDG7, Target 3: Reduce by half the proportion of people worldwide without safe drinking water and basic sanitation


Sobering demographics
Sobering Demographics meeting the Millennium Development Goals

  • 880 million additional population by 2015, virtually all in developing countries.

  • After 2015, all worldwide growth in population will take place in developing country cities.


Urban explosion
Urban Explosion meeting the Millennium Development Goals

  • India will soon cross the 50-50 urban-rural population threshold… 750 million urban Indians by 2050.

  • China is actively planning for cities each with more than 100 million population.

  • Africa’s urban population growth rates among the highest in the world.

  • Latin America has been predominantly urban for generations.


Urban water supply growth
Urban Water Supply Growth meeting the Millennium Development Goals

Millennium Development Goals face resource constraints (water, investment). Progress towards sanitation goals lagging behind water supply; therefore, wastewater management is critical.


In 1990 meeting the Millennium Development Goals - 23% of the world’s population lacked safe drinking water and 51% lacked adequate sanitation.

Today - roughly 1.1 billion people still live in conditions of water stress or scarcity; 2.6 billion people lack any improved sanitation facilities.

MDG Challenge - Supply water to 1.2 billion additional people (100 million / yr or 260,000 / day)

- Provide sanitation to 1.8 billion (180 million / yr or 400,000 / day)


THE PROGRESS meeting the Millennium Development Goals


DRINKING WATER COVERAGE meeting the Millennium Development Goals

Between 1990-2002, access rose from 77% to 83%


SANITATION COVERAGE meeting the Millennium Development Goals

Between 1990-2002, coverage rose from 49% to 58%


MDG Progress meeting the Millennium Development Goals


INTERNATIONAL COMMITMENT meeting the Millennium Development Goals


FINANCING GLOBAL WATER GOALS meeting the Millennium Development Goals

  • ESTIMATED COSTS TO MEET THE 2015 WATER AND SANITATION TARGETS (HIGHLY VARIABLE)

  • $10-12 BILLION (WHO-UNICEF)

  • – water access and basic sanitation

  • $49 BILLION (Camdessuss Report)

  • – full water ($17bill), sewage connections and

  • primary wastewater treatment ($32bill)

  • $180 BILLION (World Water Commission)

  • – maintain full water supply (drinking, agriculture, energy, industry)

  • and sanitation needs by 2025


SOURCES OF GLOBAL WATER FINANCING meeting the Millennium Development Goals

• 64 % - Domestic public sector financing at the

national or local level (from taxes, user

fees, public debt, etc.)

• 19% - Direct investments from domestic private

sources

• 5% - Direct investments from international

private sources

• 12% - International sources of support and

cooperation (including multilateral and

bilateral Official Development Assistance)


USG INVESTMENT meeting the Millennium Development Goals

FY 2003-2005

$1.7 BILLION IN OFFICIAL DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE

100 WATER AND RELATED PROJECTS

24 MILLION PEOPLE RECEIVED IMPROVED WATER ACCESS

26 MILLION PEOPLE RECEIVED ACCESS TO IMPROVED SANITATION

15 USG AGENCIES AND DEPARTMENTS SUPPORTED INTERNATIONAL WORK (WITH VIRTUALLY NO DIRECT APPROPRIATIONS)

KEY AREAS INCLUDED: AFGHANISTAN, BANGLADESH, COLOMBIA, EGYPT, ETHIOPIA, HAITI, INDIA, INDONESIA, KENYA, NEPAL, PAKISTAN, PHILIPPINES, SOMALIA, SUDAN, UGANDA, NILE BASIN, OKAVANGO BASIN


ESTIMATED FINANCIAL SUPPORT FOR GLOBAL WATER PROGRAMS meeting the Millennium Development Goals

BY LEADING USG FUNDER, FY2005

USAID $397.7 million

Millennium Challenge Corporation $89.9 million

Environmental Protection Agency $79.3 million

Department of State $36.0 million

Department of Defense $3.4 million

total >$600 million

(figure excludes Iraq and Afghanistan – additional $290 million)

(loans, guarantees, and insurance can average an additional $200 million)


Selected International Organizations meeting the Millennium Development Goals

Fiscal Year 2005

Organization U.S. Contribution % of Core Budget

to Core Budget Spent on Water

UNICEF $342.00M 10.4%

WHO $96.11M 1.9%

UNESCO $77.00M 8.1%

UNDP $108.00M 13.1%

WMO $11.00M 4.6%

UNEP $6.00M 12.3%

FAO $81.62M 0.8%

Total $721.73M

(The U.S. does not earmark contributions to core budget, but by comparative percentage $36.6M was spent on water programs.)


Senator Paul Simon Water for the Poor Act meeting the Millennium Development Goals

(Public Law 109-121)

signed into law on November 30, 2005.

  • Key Objectives:

  • increase the amount of funds available for water and sanitation,

  • support innovative funding mechanisms, greater international coordination, and better integration of water and sanitation into other development efforts,

  • require the development of a strategy to meet specific goals and benchmarks on the way to halving the percentage of people without access to safe water and sanitation.


IMPLICATION: WASTEWATER meeting the Millennium Development Goals

  • Treatment not part of MDGs

  • National finance woefully inadequate (e.g., India $7 billion investment is 10% of needed)

  • Most existing plants not working (Ghana 7 plants working of 57 total)


AGRICULTURAL REUSE INEVITABLE meeting the Millennium Development Goals

+

=

?


Kumasi, Ghana meeting the Millennium Development Goals


Hermosillo, Sonora meeting the Millennium Development Goals


Hyderabad, India meeting the Millennium Development Goals


Faisalabad, Pakistan meeting the Millennium Development Goals


ACCRA CONSENSUS - OCT. 2008 meeting the Millennium Development Goals

  • 30 international, regional, national research institutes, multilateral and bilateral bodies, and universities based in 17 countries recommend:

    • Integrate health and economic impact assessments

    • Facilitate the adoption of the 2006 World Health Organization guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater

    • Increase human, institutional, and technical capacities in low-income countries

    • Facilitate the exchange of information on best practices


Wastewater use conclusions
Wastewater Use: Conclusions meeting the Millennium Development Goals

  • Urban growth + high treatment costs = increasing agricultural reuse

  • Promote beneficial agricultural reuse

  • Mitigate health and environmental risk


Risk mitigation
Risk Mitigation meeting the Millennium Development Goals

  • Secondary treatment (biosolids handling enforcement is essential)

  • Application method to limit irrigators’ exposure

  • Market wash water and handling

  • Crop restrictions – non-edible and fodder. Limit fresh produce irrigation, e.g.:


Treatment for compliance
Treatment for Compliance meeting the Millennium Development Goals

  • WHO - 103 faecal coliforms/100 ml

    • Cost of treating raw sewage used for direct irrigation to meet WHO standard is approx US$125 per case of infection (of hepatitis, rotavirus, cholera, or typhoid) prevented (Fattal, Shuval, Laempert, 2004).

  • USEPA – zero incremental risk

    • Incremental cost of further treating wastewater from WHO to USEPA standard approx. US$450,000 per case of infection prevented (Fattal, Shuval, Laempert, 2004).


Policy implications
Policy Implications meeting the Millennium Development Goals

  • Planned reuse offers no easy solutions

  • Key to success are:

    • coherent legal and institutional framework

    • coordination of multiple government agencies

    • flexible application of the ‘polluter pays’ principle

    • extension to farmers of appropriate practices for wastewater use

    • public awareness campaigns to build social acceptability for reuse


Cascott@email arizona edu
[email protected]edu meeting the Millennium Development Goals


ad