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Honors Chemistry Chapter 8.1 notes. “The Shapes of Small Molecules”. Legos: Does this bring back any good memories???. I. Molecular Geometry. A. Structural Formula 1. Ex: Ammonia NH 3 2. Boring, 2 Dimensional… B. Ball and Stick Model

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Honors chemistry chapter 8 1 notes
Honors ChemistryChapter 8.1 notes

“The Shapes of Small Molecules”


Legos does this bring back any good memories
Legos:Does this bring back any good memories???


I molecular geometry
I. Molecular Geometry

  • A. Structural Formula

  • 1. Ex: Ammonia NH3

  • 2. Boring, 2 Dimensional…

  • B. Ball and Stick Model

    1. Def – Ball represents atom’s nucleus and inner electrons. Sticks represent bonds between atoms.

    2. 3-Dimensional!

    3. Shapes are symmetrical.

    a. Equal distance separating atoms


  • b. Why?

  • *electrons repel other electrons to form symmetry

  • 4. VSEPR Theory

  • a. Valence-shell electron pair repulsion theory

  • b. Def – in a small molecule, the pairs of electrons are arranged as far apart from each other as possible.

  • *Note: this does not apply in all situations!

  •  Ex: transition metals


Ii molecular geometry continued
II. Molecular GeometryContinued…

  • Linear

  • 1. Def – straight line angles (180°)

  • 2. Ex: O2, HCl, CO2


  • Trigonal Planer

  • 1. Def – Triangular and flat (120°)

  • 2. Ex: BCl3,

  • 3. Usually 1 central atom


  • C. Tetrahedral

  • 1. Def – means shape with 4 surfaces (109.5°)

  • 2. Ex: CH4

  • 3. Angle is not 90°! (Fig 8-7)


  • Pyramidal or Trigonal Pyramidal

  • 1. Def – 3 corners with 1 pair of unshared electrons

  • 2. Bond Angle = 107°

  • 3. why? Unpaired electrons take up more room.

  • 4. Ex: NH3


  • Bent

  • 1. Def – Not linear !

  • 2. Bond Angle = 105°

  • 3. Ex: H2O


  • Others…

  • 1. T-shaped  ClF3

  • 2. Square Planar  XeF4

  • 3. TrigonalBipyramidal  PF5

  • 4. Octahedral  SF6


8 1 assignment
8.1 assignment

  • Identify the following molecular shapes and bond angles:

    a. H2O

    b. CF4

    c. NCl3

    d. CO2

    e. NF3

    f. BF3

    g. HCN

    h. NO3

Bent – 105

Tetrahedral – 109.5

Trigonal pyramidal – 107

Linear – 180

Trigonal pyramidal – 107

Trigonal Planer – 120

Linear – 180

Trigonal Planer – 120


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