Dialects and Language Variation
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Dialects and Language Variation Kheiriyeh & Evie. Week 8 What's Hot ? What's Not ? EDUC 571 Professor Heather Robertson University of Southern California , Fall 2012. Free Powerpoint Template. What is dialect? . a mutually intelligible variety of a language. Dialect Survey Stop.

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  • Week 8

  • What's Hot? What's Not?

  • EDUC 571

  • Professor Heather Robertson

  • University of Southern California , Fall 2012

Free Powerpoint Template


What is dialect
What is dialect?

a mutually intelligible variety of a language


Dialect survey stop
Dialect Survey Stop

How do you pronounce “Lawyer”?

a. with [ j] as in "boy" ("loyer")

b. with [ ] as in "saw" ("law-yer")

c. I use both interchangeably

d. Other 


Results 11421 respondents
Results (11421 respondents)

How do you pronounce “Lawyer”?

a. with [ j] as in "boy" ("loyer") (72.84%)

b. with [ ] as in "saw" ("law-yer") (21.96%)

c. I use both interchangeably (4.86%)

d. Other (0.34%)


Choice a: as in "boy" ("loyer") 

Choice b: as in "saw" ("law-yer")

Choice c: I use both interchangeably 

http://www4.uwm.edu/FLL/linguistics/dialect/staticmaps/q_14.html


Examples of differences between the dialect found in the Upper Peninsula and the Standard American Dialect:

Directional Phrases:

Side by each --- Side by side

Pre’neer --- Pretty near or very close

Kotisva --- Go this way

Grammatical changes:

Let’s go Shop-ko. --- Let’s go to the store.

Make wood --- Split logs

  • U.P. Dialect --- Standard American Dialect

Vocabulary:

Pank --- To pack down

Swampers --- Rubber boots

Lats --- Skis, usually homemade

Sauna --- Finnish steam room

Camp --- Cottage

http://walkinthewords.blogspot.tw/2008/05/more-on-yooper-dialect.html


Are these dialects or languages
Are Upper Peninsula and the Standard American Dialect:These Dialects or Languages?

Think about it:

Danes speaking Danish and Norwegians speaking Norwegian and Swedes speaking Swedish can converse with each other.

In China, speakers of Mandarin and Cantonese are mutually unintelligible.

  • So, are they considered separated languages or dialects?


Is there a distinction between language and dialects
Is there a distinction between language and dialects? Upper Peninsula and the Standard American Dialect:

Mutually intelligible is the rule of thumb, but we still need to take social and political factors into consideration.


Difference between accents and dialects
Difference Between Accents and Dialects Upper Peninsula and the Standard American Dialect:

accent

--> refers only to pronunciation

dialect

--> different pronunciations, vocabularies, phrases and grammatical rules

http://walkinthewords.blogspot.tw/2009/05/how-to-understand-difference-between.html


Dialect survey stop1
Dialect Survey Stop Upper Peninsula and the Standard American Dialect:

Which of these terms do you prefer for a sale of unwanted items on your porch, in your yard, etc.? a. tag sale   b. yard salec. garage saled. rummage sale e. thrift sale f. stoop sale   g. carport sale h. sidewalk sale i. jumble (sale) j. car boot sale  k. car boot    l. patio sale      m. other 


Results 10736 respondents
Results Upper Peninsula and the Standard American Dialect:(10736 respondents)

Which of these terms do you prefer for a sale of unwanted items on your porch, in your yard, etc.?a. tag sale (3.60%)     b. yard sale (36.41%)     c. garage sale (52.17%)d. rummage sale (3.10%)     e. thrift sale (0.13%)     f. stoop sale (0.39%)     g. carport sale (0.05%)     h. sidewalk sale (0.20%)     i. jumble (sale) (0.10%)     j. car boot sale (0.05%)     k. car boot (0.00%)     l. patio sale (0.07%)   m. other (3.72%)


Dialect survey stop2
Dialect Survey Stop Upper Peninsula and the Standard American Dialect:

What nicknames do/did you use for your maternal grandmother?a. grandmother b. granny  c. grandma d. nana e. mimif. grammy/grammie/grammi g. other 


Results 10464 respondents
Results Upper Peninsula and the Standard American Dialect:(10464 respondents)

    a. grandmother (4.78%)     b. granny (3.77%)   c. grandma (50.67%)     d. nana (5.77%)     e. mimi (0.97%)     f. grammy/grammie/grammi (3.24%)     g. other (30.79%)


Dialect as identity
Dialect as Identity Upper Peninsula and the Standard American Dialect:

There are many ways an individual's dialect can be used as a form of identity. People who speak the Upper Peninsula or "Yooper" dialect are able to use their dialect as a form of identity by choosing not to switch to a more common dialect. This has been called a We-type solidarity

http://walkinthewords.blogspot.tw/2008/07/dialect-as-identity-exhibited-by-yooper.html


What is standard english
What Upper Peninsula and the Standard American Dialect:is Standard English?

Standard English is

1. One dialect among the many dialects of English.

2. Elevated for social and political reasons.

3. The correct way to speak

4. The language of the wider community’s media and governance

5. Often the language of upper-middle- and upper-class speakers.

6. The language of instruction in schools.

7. The language that sounds more beautiful

Note: “It woud be difficult to describe a standard for spoken English, and so discussions of Standard English almost always refer to the written language” (Schmitt & Marsden, 2006, p. 174).


What is standard english1
What Upper Peninsula and the Standard American Dialect:is Standard English?

Standard English is

1. One dialect among the many dialects of English.

2. Elevated for social and political reasons.

3. The correct way to speak ???

4. The language of the wider community’s media and governance

5. Often the language of upper-middle- and upper-class speakers.

6. The language of instruction in schools.

7. The language that sounds more beautiful ???

Note: “It woud be difficult to describe a standard for spoken English, and so discussions of Standard English almost always refer to the written language” (Schmitt & Marsden, 2006, p. 174).


What does the ad say
What does the ad say? Upper Peninsula and the Standard American Dialect:

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-t-acRm6vnro/UGH-vj6LvRI/AAAAAAAAC3o/utR12qURthc/s1600/fifth+third.jpg


Kachru's Upper Peninsula and the Standard American Dialect:

Three-Circle Model

of World Englishes


English hinglish thaiglish konglish chinglish japlish singlish yinglish
English Upper Peninsula and the Standard American Dialect: Hinglish Thaiglish Konglish Chinglish Japlish Singlish Yinglish . . . .

English around the World

Examples of Thaiglish

1. wash the film

2. I very like it

3. Are you boring?

4. I play internet

5. "This is suck!"

6. same same

7. I send you to airport

http://virtuallinguist.typepad.com/the_virtual_linguist/other-languages/


English vinglish 2012
English Upper Peninsula and the Standard American Dialect:Vinglish (2012)

English Vinglishis a 2012 Indian comedy-drama film which deals with how a so called "orthodox" Indian housewife earns the respect of her family by learning English. This movie received a standing ovation after it was screened at the 2012 Toronto Film Festival.

Let’s watch its theatrical trailer together: 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8dWir9Q_Vek


Pidgins and Creoles Upper Peninsula and the Standard American Dialect:


Pidgins
Pidgins Upper Peninsula and the Standard American Dialect:

  • Pidgins language is nobody's native language; may arise when two speakers of different languages with no common language try to have a makeshift conversation. Lexicon usually comes from one language, structure often from the other. Because of colonialism, slavery etc. the prestige of Pidgin languages is very low. Many pidgins are ‘contact vernaculars’, may only exist for one speech event.

    *A Walk in the WoRds (2011)


Robot pidgins
Robot Pidgins! Upper Peninsula and the Standard American Dialect:

“Australian scientists have invented a new breed of robots called Lingodroids, programmed to make, use, and share language.” (Discover magazine, September 2011)

According to the article, Lingodroids are programmed with an alphabet of beeps and are able to pair the beeps (or letters) to form syllables. These syllables can then be combined to form words.

It is through game play that words are created. In one of the games mentioned, two Lingodroids meet in an unfamiliar place. One of the Lingodroids creates a name for the place and shares that name with the other. The other Lingodroid then adds the place name to its lexicon.

http://walkinthewords.blogspot.com/2011/09/robot-pidgins.html


Creole
Creole Upper Peninsula and the Standard American Dialect:

Creole (orig. person of European descent born and raised in a tropical colony) is a language that was originally a pidgin but has become nativized, i.e. a community of speakers claims it as their first language. Next used to designate the language(s) of people of Caribbean and African descent in colonial and ex-colonial countries (Jamaica, Haiti, Mauritius, Réunion, Hawaii, Pitcairn, etc.)

http://walkinthewords.blogspot.com/2011/09/robot-pidgins.html


Dialect survey stop3
Dialect Survey Stop Upper Peninsula and the Standard American Dialect:

What do you call paper that has already been used for something or is otherwise imperfect?

a. scratch paper 

b. scrap paper

c.  scratch paper is still usable (for example, the paper you bring to do extra work on a test); scrap paper is paper that isn't needed anymore and can be thrown away

d. Other


Results 10692 respondents
Results Upper Peninsula and the Standard American Dialect:(10692 respondents)

What do you call paper that has already been used for something or is otherwise imperfect?

a. scratch paper (31.01%)

b. scrap paper (30.71%)

c. scratch paper is still usable (for example, the paper you bring to do extra work on a test); scrap paper is paper that isn't needed anymore and can be thrown away. (35.65%)

d. other (2.63%)

http://www4.uwm.edu/FLL/linguistics/dialect/maps.html


Discussion questions
Discussion Questions Upper Peninsula and the Standard American Dialect:

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement:

“On the other hand, with English being spoken so prevalently as a global language, it must be understood that English is not owned by anyone and that everyone who uses it has the power to adapt it, change it, and contribute to its future use.”

(Anderson, 2012)


Discussion questions cont d
Discussion Questions (Cont’d) Upper Peninsula and the Standard American Dialect:

Do you believe that mastery of Standard English gives power to succeed?


References
References Upper Peninsula and the Standard American Dialect:

Anderson, L. (2012). EDUC 561 Forum Post Week 6. Rossier School of Education. University of Southern California.

Curzan, A., & Adams, M. (2012). How English works: A linguistic introduction (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Longman. Chapter 11: Language variation (pp. 346-376)

“Dialect as Identity Exhibited by Yooper We-Type Solidarity.” (2008). A Walk in the WoRds. Retrieved from http://walkinthewords.blogspot.tw/2008/07/dialect-as-identity-exhibited-by-yooper.html

“How to Understand the Difference Between Accents and Dialects.” (2009). A Walk in the WoRds. Retrieved from http://walkinthewords.blogspot.tw/2009/05/how-to-understand-difference-between.html

“More on Yooper Dialect.” (2008). A Walk in the WoRds. Retrieved from http://walkinthewords.blogspot.tw/2008/05/more-on-yooper-dialect.html

“Other languages.” (2012). The Virtual Linguist. Retrieved from http://virtuallinguist.typepad.com/the_virtual_linguist/other-languages/

“Robot Pidgins.” (2011). A Walk in the WoRds. Retrieved from http://walkinthewords.blogspot.com/2011/09/robot-pidgins.html

Schmitt, N., & Marsden, R. (2006). Why is English like that? Historical answers to hard ELT questions. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan. Chapter 7: English around the world: How is English different in various countries around the world? (pp. 171-206)

Vaux, B. (2005). Dialect Survey. Harvard Computer Society. Retrieved from http://www4.uwm.edu/FLL/linguistics/dialect/maps.html

“Vowel Be Darned.” (2012). A Walk in the WoRds. Retrieved from http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-t-acRm6vnro/UGH-vj6LvRI/AAAAAAAAC3o/utR12qURthc/s1600/fifth+third.jpg


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