Gas law notes chemistry semester ii
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Gas Law Notes Chemistry Semester II. Ideal Gas Law Combined Gas Law And Guy Lussac’s Law. Ideal Gas Equation. The variables of the physical nature of gases: n : the number of particles (moles) P : pressure V : volume T : temperature expressed always in K. Ideal Gas Equation.

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Gas law notes chemistry semester ii

Gas Law NotesChemistrySemester II

Ideal Gas Law

Combined Gas Law

And

Guy Lussac’s Law


Ideal gas equation
Ideal Gas Equation

  • The variables of the physical nature of gases:

    • n : the number of particles (moles)

    • P : pressure

    • V : volume

    • T : temperature expressed always in K


Ideal gas equation1
Ideal Gas Equation

  • Charles stated that volume varies directly with temperature

  • Boyle stated volume varies inversely with pressure

  • So…combining these notions, we can set pressure times volume as equal to a constant times the temperature, where the constant is the same every time it is calculated.

  • Mathematically this is shown…


Ideal gas law
Ideal Gas Law

Boyle’s Law pressure times volume = a constant

Charles’ Law: volume is proportional to temperature

Combining the two yields the ideal gas law

Restated Ideal Gas Law: …


Ideal gas law1
Ideal Gas Law

nRis a constant, n is the moles and R is the universal gas constant

R =8.31 L kPa /mol K


Ideal gas law problem
Ideal Gas Law Problem

  • What is the volume of a container holding 2.00 moles of a substance at 831.67 kPa and 500K?


Problem set up
Problem Set Up

  • P = 831.67 kPa

  • V = ?

    n = 2.00 moles

    T = 500K

    R = 8.31 L kPa/moles K

  • PV = nRT


Problem cont d
Problem cont’d

  • 831.67*V = 2.00*8.31*500

  • V = 9.99 L


Combined gas law
Combined Gas Law

  • Lab experiments are rarely at STP, usually mathematical corrections must be made.

  • Corrections are made by multiplying of the original volume (V1) by 2 ratios (1 for temp. and the other for pressure)

  • The math derivation looks like this:


Combined gas law1
Combined Gas Law

Or…

Since n is the same on both

sides of the equation…



Combined gas law problems
Combined Gas Law Problems

  • A 7.51 m3 volume @ 59.9 kPa and 5 °C should be corrected to STP. What is the new volume?

  • P1V1 = P2V2

    T1 T2


Set up
Set Up

  • V1 = 7.51 m3

  • P1 = 59.9 kPa

  • T1 = 5 °C

  • P2 = 101.3 kPa

  • T2 = 0 °C

  • V2 = ? Find this

  • Remember convert T to Kelvin!

  • Now solve it!


Solution
Solution

  • 59.9 * 7.51 = 101.3 * V2

    278 273

  • 59.9 * 7.51 * 273 = V2

    278 * 101.3

  • V2 = 4.36 m3


Next question
next question…

  • Another problem: A helium balloon with volume = 410mL is cooled from 27 °C to -27 °C. P is reduced from 110 kPa to 25 kPa. What is the new V of gas @ the lower temp. and pressure?


Set up1
Set Up

  • V1 = 410 mL

  • P1 = 110 kPa

  • T1 = 27 °C

  • P2 = 25 kPa

  • T2 = -27 °C

  • V2 = ? Find this


Answer
Answer

  • V2 = 1479 mL


Guy lussac s law
Guy Lussac’s Law

Guy Lussac’s Law relates pressure and temperature….

To be used when volume and moles

are kept constant


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