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History 5000-6000 yr B.P. Hydraulic engineers build canals, levees, dams, water conduits, and wells along the Indus in Pakistan, the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia, the Hwanf Ho in China, and Nile in Egypt. 3800 B.P. 3000 B.P.

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History

5000-6000 yr B.P.

Hydraulic engineers build canals, levees, dams, water conduits, and wells along the Indus in Pakistan, the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia, the Hwanf Ho in China, and Nile in Egypt.

3800 B.P.

3000 B.P.

Evidence of Hydrological cycle recognition as early as 3000 B.P.

2400 B.P.

Much of the early understanding was based on Greek philosophers musings which were a little off the marks, especially for underground mechanisms

These notes are provided to help you pay attention IN class. If I notice poor attendance, fewer notes will begin to appear on these pages


late 100's B.C. Vetruvious first recognized that ground water is from rain and snow infiltration and not upwelling from deep subterrain

1500-1550 AD Leonardo Da Vinci and Bernard Palissy both assert that water in rivers comes from precipitation...initiation of modern scientific approach tot he hydrologic cycle

1700 AD

~1750 AD Use of the word “hydrology” in approximately it’s current meaning began

pre-1800

These notes are provided to help you pay attention IN class. If I notice poor attendance, fewer notes will begin to appear on these pages


1856 - Up to this time, little recognition of ground water flow. Henry Darcy establishes the basic law of flow through a porous material

1800's –

1922 - Section of Scientific Hydrology established in the International Union of Geogesy and Geophysics

1930 –

Future

Hydrology/hydrogeology will become very important as population grows and demand for water increases (some estimates of water demand doubling in next 20 years)

These notes are provided to help you pay attention IN class. If I notice poor attendance, fewer notes will begin to appear on these pages


These notes are provided to help you pay attention IN class. If I notice poor attendance, fewer notes will begin to appear on these pages


Water Properties movement, and chemistry)

Covalent bonds - attractive forces between atoms that hold molecules together. Each atom retains its electrons but shares them with adjacent atoms. When separated, each retains its own electrons

Ionic bonds –

Van de Waals forces - very weak electrostatic attraction between molecules

Hydrogen bonds –

Net charge of molecule is zero, but it has a positive and a negative side. This is called a “polar molecule”

These notes are provided to help you pay attention IN class. If I notice poor attendance, fewer notes will begin to appear on these pages


Energy required to break bonds in 18 g of water movement, and chemistry)

Covalent bonds: 100's to thousands of kiloJoules

Ionic bonds:

hydrogen bonds: 18.7 kJ

van der Waals bonds:

hydrogen bonding affects the structures of ice and water, given them many unique properties.

Water molecules in ice are held together in a crystal lattice to form six-sided puckered rings arranged in layers.

These notes are provided to help you pay attention IN class. If I notice poor attendance, fewer notes will begin to appear on these pages


WHICH IS ICE? WHICH IS WATER? movement, and chemistry)

ICE

WATER

These notes are provided to help you pay attention IN class. If I notice poor attendance, fewer notes will begin to appear on these pages


These notes are provided to help you pay attention movement, and chemistry)IN class. If I notice poor attendance, fewer notes will begin to appear on these pages


WATER…THE MIRICLE SUBSTANCE movement, and chemistry)

Colorless, tastelesss, and odorless

Freezing Point of water is?

Boiling Point of water is?

______ is unique in that it is the only natural substance that is found in all three states -- liquid, solid (ice), and gas (steam/vapor)

Heat Capacity is the highest of all solids and liquids except?

- prevents extreme ranges in water temperature

Latent heat of fusion is the highest of all substances, except?

-

These notes are provided to help you pay attention IN class. If I notice poor attendance, fewer notes will begin to appear on these pages


Average ocean salinity is about 35 ppt movement, and chemistry)

These notes are provided to help you pay attention IN class. If I notice poor attendance, fewer notes will begin to appear on these pages


Latent heat of evaporation is ___________ of all substances movement, and chemistry)

-important in heat and water transfers to the atmosphere

Thermal expansion: temperature of maximum density decreases with increasing salinity.

Temperature of maximum density for pure water is?

Water is unusual in that less dense as a solid than liquid

density of ice Ih is , but varies with gas content

These notes are provided to help you pay attention IN class. If I notice poor attendance, fewer notes will begin to appear on these pages


Surface tension is highest of all liquids, except? movement, and chemistry)

-important for capillary action

Dissolving power: dissolves more substances and in greater quantities than any other liquid

Critical ingredient for life on this planet (and others)

Were it not for the solvent property of water, life could not exist because water

transfers nutrients vital to life in animals and plants.

“Where there is water there is life”

These notes are provided to help you pay attention IN class. If I notice poor attendance, fewer notes will begin to appear on these pages


These notes are provided to help you pay attention movement, and chemistry)IN class. If I notice poor attendance, fewer notes will begin to appear on these pages


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