Laue lens telescopes for unprecedented gamma ray imaging and sensitivity
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Laue lens telescopes for unprecedented gamma-ray imaging and sensitivity. F. Frontera On behalf of a large collaboration. AHEAD Meeting, Rome, 10 Feb 2009. Participants to the proposal. Dipartimento Fisica – Ferrara INAF/IASF-Bologna CNR, IMEM, Parma

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Laue lens telescopes for unprecedented gamma ray imaging and sensitivity

Laue lens telescopes for unprecedented gamma-ray imaging and sensitivity

F. Frontera

On behalf of

a large collaboration

AHEAD Meeting,

Rome, 10 Feb 2009

Participants to the proposal
Participants to the proposal sensitivity

  • Dipartimento Fisica – Ferrara

  • INAF/IASF-Bologna

  • CNR, IMEM, Parma

  • INRIM (ex G. Ferraris e G. Colonnetti)- Turin

  • DTM Technologies, Modena

  • Thales-Alenia Space Italia, Turin

  • Thales-Alenia Space Italia, Milan

  • Institute Laue Langevin (ILL), Grenoble (TBD)

  • University of Coimbra, Portugal (R. M. Curado da Silva)

  • Active Space, Coimbra, Portugal

Main goals achievable with deep gamma ray observations 70 100 kev
Main goals achievable with deep gamma-ray observations (>70/100 keV)

  • Study of matter under extreme conditions:

    • Physics in the presence of super-strong magnetic fields (magnetars);

    • Precise role of the Inverse Compton in cosmic sources (e.g., AGN, GRBs);

    • Precise role of non-thermal mechanisms in extended objects (e.g., Galaxy Clusters);

    • Origin and distribution of high energy cut-offs in the spectra of AGNs;

    • Origin of Cosmic X-ray diffuse background (CXB). Synthesis models require a spectral roll-over with EF = 100-400 keV of the contributing source population, that is still unidentified.

    • Determination of the antimatter production processes and its origin from the detection of annihilation lines.

  • Study of the violent Universe:

    • Origin and emission mechanisms in cosmic explosions (e.g. SNIa) from the detection and study of nuclear lines;

Requirements (>70/100 keV)

  • Development of a new generation of gamma-ray telescopes with

    • sensitivity two-three orders of magnitude better than INTEGRAL at the same energies.

    • ≤ 1 arcmin imaging capability

      A Gamma Ray Imager

Recognized importance of a gamma ray imager
Recognized importance of a Gamma Ray Imager (>70/100 keV)

  • The need of a Gamma Ray Imager is recognized

    • In the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Document (BR-247);

    • In the “Astronet Infrastructure Roadmap” document (p.37), that completes the Document “A science vision for a European Astronomy” prepared by the ASTRONET Team:“Further development of existing and new technologies should be encouraged in these areas in order to fully address the challenges set out in the Science Vision. One such area is imaging and spectroscopy in the very difficult 0.1-10 MeV photon energy range.”

Main ongoing development activity in europe
Main ongoing development activity in Europe (>70/100 keV)

  • ESA: ITT assigned to Alenia-Thales Italia for Laue lens crystal development.

  • CESR Institute, Toulouse (PI, P. Von Ballmoos) with CNES contracts also to industry for lens development.

  • Physics Dept, University of Ferrara (PI, F. Frontera), with ASI support until 2007 for lens development.

  • IASF Bologna, Rome, Milan and Palermo for development of focal plane imaging detectors for Laue lenses.

  • University of Coimbra, Portugal (PI R. Silva) in collaboration with IASF Bologna for Monte Carlo studies of optimized polarimeters in the focus of Laue lenses.

Other ongoing development activity
Other ongoing development activity (>70/100 keV) :

UNI Ferrara/LSS (Lab for Sensors and Semiconductors): development techniques for broad energy band crystal production (ondulated crystals).

CNR/IMEM- Parma: techniques development for production of new mosaic crystals.

Studies for gamma ray missions with laue lenses
Studies for gamma-ray missions with Laue lenses (>70/100 keV)

  • GRI proposal submitted to ESA (1° call Cosmic Vision)

  • Possible addition of a second satellite hosting Laue lenses, in flight formation with a Japanese satellite with a Compton telescope aboard (Proposer: T. Takahashi).

    • First meeting in Marseille (July 2008).

    • The next meeting is scheduled on 9-10 March 2009 in Japan.

  • Test of a 70-300 keV Laue lens in a balloon experiment

    • Results of the feasibility study presented at the national workshop on Long Duration Balloons (Rome, June 2008).

First lens prototype
First lens prototype (>70/100 keV)

  • Mosaic crystals of Cu[111]

  • Tile size: 15x15x2 mm3

  • Mosaic spread: 3/4 arcmin

  • Lens support: carbon fiber

First prototype measured image
First prototype measured image (>70/100 keV)

Difference between measured image and Monte Carlo image in the case of a perfect assembling of the crystals in the lens

Bending by indentations lss
Bending by indentations (LSS) (>70/100 keV)

Counts (arbitrary units)


Deflection by 100 rad of a 200 m thick Si plate

PRL 90(2003)034801

Bending by tensile strips lss
Bending by tensile strips-LSS (>70/100 keV)

Deposition of tensile layers on a substrate is a method to bend a sample

Silicon sample

Deposition at high temperature

Cooling at room temperature

Internal stress is generated according to Stoney’s equation

NIM B 234(2005)40

Crystalline undulator lss
Crystalline undulator-LSS (>70/100 keV)

Layout of an undulator

L=0.5 mm

Strain is more homogeneous than with the indentations and does not deteriorate the crystal

Bending by anistropy induced effects in silicon lss
Bending by anistropy-induced effects in silicon-LSS (>70/100 keV)

  • A primary external deformation results in a secondary anisotropy-driven deformation and in turn in broadening of the rocking curve

Main goal of the present proposal
Main goal of the present proposal (>70/100 keV)

  • General Goal:Development of a technology for the industrial production of Laue lens telescopes with focal lengths up to 100 m for soft gamma-ray astronomy.

  • This development requires the following:

    • development of technologies for the production in reasonable times, that are compatible with the realization of space mission, of a large amount of proper crystals (mosaic, or something like) needed for the lens;

    • Development, at industrial level, of an integrated technology for the accurate assembling, in reasonable times, of the crystal tiles in lens petals;

    • Development of a proper technology for the assembling of the lens petals to build the lens;

    • Realization of a lens prototype;

    • Development of a suitable equipment for the test of the lens prototype.

Roughly expected costs
Roughly expected costs (>70/100 keV)

For science goal identification vs. Laue lens properties and Monte Carlo Laue lens optimization study: 150 k€

For crystal development activity (IMEM,LSS,ILL): 600 k€

For development of high focal length Laue lens assembling technology (DTM, TAS-MI): 700 k€

For metrology for assembling and testing Laue lenses on the ground (TAS-TO, INRIM, UNIFE); 200 k€

For support frames for Laue lenses and stability problems and accommodation study of Laue lenses (TAS-TO): 400 k€

Lens prototype development (DTM): 500 k€

For development of apparatus for Laue lens testing (UNIFE): 800 k€

Development of a suitable focal plane detector for the lens testing: 150 k€. 

TOTAL (TBV): 3.5 M€