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Learning & Remembering. Principles for Remembering. It is very important that you have an interest in what you learn. Pay attention or you won ’ t learn anything! Organize the information. Practice what you have learned & organized. Memory Aids/Methods.

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Principles for remembering
Principles for Remembering

  • It is very important that you have an interest in what you learn.

  • Pay attention or you won’t learn anything!

  • Organize the information.

  • Practice what you have learned & organized.


Memory aids methods
Memory Aids/Methods

There are many types of memory aids/

methods that help you remember things, e.g.:

  • Diary

  • Memos

  • Turning numbers into letters

  • Making notes

  • Rote rehearsal.

    However, some are effective and some are

    not so effective.


Effective less effective

Extensive recoding

Link-word method

Inductive, concept attainment method

Method of Loci

Simple rehearsal

Rote method

Tutoring & lecturing

Effective Less Effective


Mnemonics
Mnemonics

The following slides introduces some

mnemonics for enhancing remembering.

Mnemonics are:

  • Techniques for helping us to remember.

  • It is the connecting of two ideas, with the second one triggering yet another one, and so on.

  • It is based on the idea of making information meaningful by relating it to what you know.


Keyword method
Keyword Method

Select one word to represent a longer

thought or several subordinate thoughts.

  • Generate your own keywords.

  • Construct an image between the keyword & the word to learn.

  • Keywordword to learn.

  • Keywords should be visualizable.

  • Keywords should be interacting.

image


Keyword method example
Keyword Method (example)

Word to learn: persuade

Keyword:

Picture:

to learn keyword

purse

A woman is being persuaded to buy a purse.


Keyword method example1
Keyword Method (example)

This example relies both on rhyme or sound & imagery

Spanish word to learn:

lapiz

(keyword)

pencil (meaning of lapiz)

trapeze


Keyword method example2
Keyword Method (example)

Spanish word patio (pronounced pot-o) meaning duck

patio

duck

pot


Keyword method example3
Keyword Method (example)

  • French word pere sounds pear,

    & it means father.

  • Generate images of

    father by using the

    keyword

pear


Pegword method
Pegword Method

  • First memorize a set of objects rhyming with integer names.

  • Then generate an of each item to be learned.

  • Link the of the item to learn

    to the corresponding of the object.

    4. Give it a meaning (use picture).

image

image

image


Pegword method examples
Pegword Method (examples)

Integers-ObjectsImageTo LearnImage

One-bun

Two-shoe

Three-tree

Four-door

Five-hive

Six-sticks

Seven-heaven

Eight-gate

Nine-wine

Ten-hen

waitress

coat


Method of loci places
Method of Loci (Places)

Good for remembering events in a particular

order.

  • Construct a sentimental map of your home/

    surrounding area.

  • Place the things in these loci.

  • Walk down the street to pick up the things.

  • No more than one item in one place.

  • Places should not be too much alike.


Method of loci example step 1
Method of Loci (example step 1)

MacDonald

HK Bank

Barber Shop

China Bank

Fruit Vendor

Florist

Drug Store

Bakery

Pet Shop

Home

Park


Method of loci example step 2
Method of Loci (example step 2)

public recognition

see parents

privileges

see principal

extra marks

detention

extrinsic reward

copy work

praise

+ -

Reinforcement

reprimand


Acronym
Acronym

  • Remember words by forming one word to represent all of the words.

  • Word formed on the basis of the first letters.

    POLKA

    P – pegword

    O – organizational scheme

    L – loci

    K – keyword

    A – acronym


Acrostics
Acrostics

  • Construct a sentence to remember a sequence of objects.

  • First letter of each word represents the first letter of the object.

    My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nine Pizzas

    =

    Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto


Acrostics (example)

Biological groupings used in taxonomy

King Phillip called out fifty good soldiers.

i h l r a e p

n y a d m n e

g l s e i u c

d u s r l s i

o m y e

m s


Acrostics (examples)

Physics

Sober Physicists Don't Find Giraffes In Kitchens.

~The orbital names for electrons (SPDFGIK).

Computer Science

All People in Saskatchewan Turned NDP.

~ The OSI model: Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data Link, Physical

(from [email protected])


Rhymes

Make a rhyme to remember informtaion. E.g.

  • Black & Yellow, Kill a Fellow

  • Black & Red, Venom Lack


Ridiculous association image bizarreness
Ridiculous Association/Image Bizarreness

  • This method is to remember things by associating objects with bizarre or ridiculous images.

  • Association is enhanced if the image is vivid, ridiculous, impossible, or illogical.

  • Make the associations interactive, such as

    rule of substitution

    out-of-proportion rule

    rule of exaggeration

  • e.g. The dog rode the bicycle down the street.


Imagery representation
Imagery Representation

  • Good readers respond to text by constructing images of the meanings conveyed by the text.

  • This method requires making mental pictures of material.

  • No intentional transformation of content is applied here.

    e.g. “The king led the elves through the driving rain storm.” – form in your mind the actions and the scene of the sentence.


Memory strategies
Memory Strategies

Other than mnemonics, there are memory strategies that are useful for remembering.

The slides below differentiate the strategies into 2 categories:

Elaboration

&

Organization


Memory strategies1
Memory Strategies

Elaboration

  • Note taking

    ~ construct meaningful paraphrases of important ideas

    ~ integrate new & old information in personally meaningful way


  • Story Grammar

    Who is the main character?

    Where and when did the story take place?

    What did the main characters do?

    How did the story end?

    How did the main character feel?


  • PQ4R

  • Preview. Survey headings.

  • Question. Ask yourself as you read.

  • Read. Read the material.

  • Reflect. Make connections to prior know.

  • Recite. Test your memory of the text.

  • Review. Reread portions you don’t

    understand or remember.


  • Self-questioning

    “How does this information relate to what the author discusses in the preceding section?”

    ~(synthesis)

    “How can this be applied in a school setting?”

    ~(application)


Organizing

  • Classifying /Grouping

    girl heart robin purple finger flute blue organ man hawk green lung eagle child piano

    green man piano heart eagle

    blue girl flute lung hawk

    purple child organ finger robin


  • Concept Mapping

    ~ Diagram concepts

    relationships

    ~ Identify important concepts & specify their interrelationship

    ~ You may print this concept map on learning and remembering to help you understand more about this topic.


Major contrast of strategies
Major Contrast of Strategies

Less Effective Techniques are those that rely on

simple rehearsal of material.

More Effective Techniques are those that require:

~ extensive recoding, and

~ relating of new content to other knowledge.


Review of memory skills
Review of Memory Skills

  • Pay attention

  • Make sure you understand

  • (Extensive) encoding

  • Make associations (old & new)

  • Impose organizations

  • Use mnemonic device

  • Involve senses (eyes, ears, nose, touch, feel)

  • Image when possible

  • Distribute learning (spread out practicing over days)

  • Overlearn (learn again & again & again & again)

  • Rehearse periodically


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