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Exploring Enterprise: exploiting Enquiry-Based Learning to enhance enterprise education. May 2009. Karen O’Rourke Academic Developer and Teacher Fellow Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning Leeds Metropolitan University, UK [email protected]

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Exploring enterprise exploiting enquiry based learning to enhance enterprise education

Exploring Enterprise:exploiting Enquiry-Based Learning to enhance enterprise education

May 2009


Karen O’Rourke

Academic Developer and Teacher Fellow

Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning

Leeds Metropolitan University, UK

[email protected]



  • Problem-Based Learning research, development and implementation in English Literature with UK National Teaching Fellow

  • Set up and managed the first Pedagogic Research Centre in the Faculty of Arts, The Victoria University of Manchester

  • Managed an externally-funded EBL staff development project delivered across six UK HE institutions

  • Key member of Manchester team developing successful bid for Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning - £4.5M

    - case studies and publications

    - student intern programmes and National Student Network

    - keynotes ,workshops and consultancies across the UK and in Ireland, Italy, Spain, Sweden, USA, Canada, Mexico, Peru, Australia, Finland....

  • Current area of interest is the link between enquiry-based learning and the development of students’ entrepreneurial and intra-preneurial skills, behaviours and attitudes

www.leedsmet.ac.uk/enterprise


During this workshop you will
During this workshop, you will: implementation in English Literature with UK National Teaching Fellow

  • Engage in an EBL activity (or two....or three!)

  • Have opportunities to

    • Review some key EBL principles and processes

    • Discuss some of the benefits of EBL

    • Examine the applicability of EBL as a method to develop entrepreneurial graduates

    • Identify some opportunities and challenges in relation to enterprise education


  • We will work collaboratively and co-operatively implementation in English Literature with UK National Teaching Fellow

  • Everyone should be encouraged to make a contribution

  • Tasks should be completed by the designated deadline

  • We will relax and enjoy ourselves!

  • Any more….?

Our group contract


Your handouts implementation in English Literature with UK National Teaching Fellow

Find others in the room with the same colour paper clip as yours

As a group, you have three minutes from the word ‘go’ to come up with as many uses for a paper clip as you can think of

Hints - someone should note your ideas – this is a competition! – so you will need a record

- use your imagination!


Institute for Enterprise implementation in English Literature with UK National Teaching Fellow


My journey to cheltenham
My journey to Cheltenham.... implementation in English Literature with UK National Teaching Fellow

walking

TUBE

escalator

TAXI

elevator

train


on implementation in English Literature with UK National Teaching Fellowseparate post it notes, write down all the modes of transport you used to get to this workshop today, e.g.

Train

walk

cycle

bus


Hang on to those post its
Hang on to those post-its! implementation in English Literature with UK National Teaching Fellow


Exploring ways to work together
Exploring ways to work together.... implementation in English Literature with UK National Teaching Fellow

  • Conduct a team investigation

    • Pens

    • flipchart

  • Share information and use it to create an escutcheon that illustrates your team’s

    • Skills

    • Interests

    • Talents

    • Diversity

    • USP

      You have ten minutes to complete the escutcheon followed by two minutes ‘elevator pitch’ for each team

      Any questions?


  • Assessment, Learning and Teaching Priorities 2008-12 implementation in English Literature with UK National Teaching Fellow

  • ‘Leeds Met puts students at the heart of everything we do, enabling them to maximise their potential and use all their talents to the full’

  • Helping students to engage in learning in exciting, flexible, stimulating environments where creativity and individuality of approach are encouraged

  • Offering an engaging, transformative and rounded experience for our students e.g....through working with industry and our partners

  • Broadening student perspectives to enable them to develop skills for learning, information literacy and enterprise


At Leeds Metropolitan University, enterprise education is recognised as “an inclusive concept which provides both the context in which subject disciplines can be explored as well as an approach to learning which can be taken to the exploration and discovery of a discipline. In this respect, it can provide a challenging environment within which to explore a variety of teaching areas (such as a small business context) as well as providing a new and stimulating dimension to learning – that of being enterprising”.


At Leeds Metropolitan University, enterprise education is recognised as “an inclusive concept which provides both the context in which subject disciplines can be explored as well as an approach to learning which can be taken to the exploration and discovery of a discipline. In this respect, it can provide a challenging environment within which to explore a variety of teaching areas (such as a small business context) as well as providing a new and stimulating dimension to learning – that of being enterprising”.


  • The CETL – Enterprise in the Curriculum recognised as “an inclusive concept which provides both the context in which subject disciplines can be

  • Supporting the development of a positive attitude to innovation, personal change and development

  • Development, integration and embedding across all subject areas and levels – beyond discrete activities and ‘bolt-on’ models

  • Underpinned by theory and grounded in practice

  • Subject knowledge and skills development

  • Engagement with with experts and professionals, developing relationships and forming partnerships

  • Experiential learning approach – active, student-centred, reflective


The cure for boredom is curiosity. recognised as “an inclusive concept which provides both the context in which subject disciplines can be

There is no cure for curiosity....

Dorothy Parker


Amalgamate your post-its and discard duplicates. Now think of as many OTHER ways you could have got here and write your ideas down on separate post-it notes

HINT – break the boundaries and be imaginative!

swimming

Formula One racing car

On the back of an elephant


Be mindful of the ground rules
Be mindful of the ground rules.... of as many OTHER ways you could have got here and write your ideas down on separate post-it notes


We re nearly there
We’re nearly there! of as many OTHER ways you could have got here and write your ideas down on separate post-it notes

Organise your post-it notes according to common characteristics or themes

Identify opposites (e.g. fast/slow or fun/boring) and re-sort if necessary

Take any two opposing themes and use them to complete a Boston Box


Boston box an example
Boston Box – an example of as many OTHER ways you could have got here and write your ideas down on separate post-it notes

Fast Slow

Expensive Affordable


Review reflect
Review/Reflect of as many OTHER ways you could have got here and write your ideas down on separate post-it notes

  • How did your group approach the task?

  • Who or what helped you?

  • What hindered you?

  • What resources did you need and find?

  • What could you have done differently?


Developing intellectual skills
Developing intellectual skills of as many OTHER ways you could have got here and write your ideas down on separate post-it notes

Evaluation

Synthesis

Analysis

Application

Comprehension

Knowledge

Bloom’s Taxonomy


Bloom s taxonomy
Bloom’s Taxonomy of as many OTHER ways you could have got here and write your ideas down on separate post-it notes

Knowledge – repeat, record, recall, list, relate

Comprehension – restate, discuss, explain, identify, tell

Application – interpret, apply, use, illustrate, demonstrate

Analysis – compare, contrast, question, debate, categorise

Synthesis – arrange, assemble, construct, create, organise

Evaluation – rate, compare, revise, judge, appraise


Hypothesis of as many OTHER ways you could have got here and write your ideas down on separate post-it notes

Creativity and Innovation

Instinct

Intuition

new territory to explore

Evaluation

Synthesis

Analysis

Application

Comprehension

Knowledge

Challenging landscape

‘safe’ environment

Based on Beard, C. Sheffield Hallam University


Getting down to it
Getting down to it of as many OTHER ways you could have got here and write your ideas down on separate post-it notes

  • You are an interdisciplinary team working in Local Government, Town Planning department. You have been asked to develop a transport strategy for getting the public from London to the University of Sussex. You have 3 weeks to produce an outline strategy.

  • What’s your action plan? (15 minutes)

  • Present your initial action plan to colleagues (3 minutes)

  • Feedback to refine your ideas (5 minutes)


Ncge and nesta report september 2008 developing entrepreneurial graduates
NCGE and NESTA Report September 2008 of as many OTHER ways you could have got here and write your ideas down on separate post-it notes‘Developing Entrepreneurial Graduates’

The executive summary:

  • More UK students need to engage in entrepreneurial activity

  • Vice-Chancellors should provide visible leadership

  • Academics are the enablers of change in the curriculum

  • Entrepreneurship education can enrich students’ university experience

  • Business and social entrepreneurs must be fully involved

  • Students should seize opportunities that enterprise education offers to enable them to prepare for their futures


Developing entrepreneurial graduates
Developing Entrepreneurial Graduates of as many OTHER ways you could have got here and write your ideas down on separate post-it notes

  • Engaging stakeholders

    - academic faculty

    - student clubs and societies

    - entrepreneurs and businesses

    - social entrepreneurs

  • Enabling environments

    - capacity building

    - cross-campus reach

    - visible leadership

    - institutional culture

    - embeddedness

  • Entrepreneurial Practices

    - multidisciplinary

    - innovative educators

    - experiential approaches

    - experimentation and discovery


What is ebl
What is EBL? of as many OTHER ways you could have got here and write your ideas down on separate post-it notes

A natural form of learning, borne out of our innate sense of curiosity and desire to investigate and understand

It is widely applicable, and has grown across a number of subjects and covers a broad spectrum of approaches and learning activities


A definition
A definition.... of as many OTHER ways you could have got here and write your ideas down on separate post-it notes

EBL represents a shift away from passive methods, which involve the transmission of knowledge to students, to more facilitative teaching methods through which students are expected to construct their own knowledge and understanding by engaging in supported processes of enquiry

Kahn and O’Rourke, Guide to Enquiry-Based Learning, www.heacademy.ac.uk


  • EBL provides two broad models of learning through enquiry: of as many OTHER ways you could have got here and write your ideas down on separate post-it notes

  • a) Engagement with problems that present difficulties but are capable of solution when subject to appropriate enquiry

  • Engagement with problems whose outcomes are inherently uncertain, open to question, unsettled, and thus a matter for continuing, perhaps irresolvable, enquiry

  • CEEBL, 2006


STUDENT LED of as many OTHER ways you could have got here and write your ideas down on separate post-it notes

Pursuing (information-active)

Students explore a knowledge-base by pursuing

their own closed questions and lines of enquiry (“what is

the existing answer to my question?”)

Authoring (discovery-active)

Students pursue their own open-ended questions and

lines of enquiry in interaction with the knowledge-base

of the discipline (“how can I answer my question”)

EXPLORING AND ACQUIRING EXISTING KNOWLEDGE

PARTICIPATING IN BUILDING KNOWLEDGE

Identifying (information-responsive)

Students explore the knowledge-base of the discipline

in response to closed questions or lines of enquiry framed by staff (“what is the existing answer to this question?”)

Producing (discovery-responsive)

Students pursue open questions or lines of inquiry framed by tutors, in interaction with the knowledge-base of the discipline (“how can I answer this question?”)

STAFF LED

LEVY (2009), CILASS


Active student centred authentic supported
Active, student-centred, authentic, supported of as many OTHER ways you could have got here and write your ideas down on separate post-it notes

  • Learning driven by a process of enquiry or investigation

  • Starting point - complex, intriguing, ‘real world’ stimulus

  • Student-centred

  • Requires action

  • Connects theory and practice

  • Values process and product

  • Develops skills

  • Social

  • Enjoyable


Why introduce EBL? of as many OTHER ways you could have got here and write your ideas down on separate post-it notes

  • Transition

    • Practice in a safe environment

    • Opportunities for reflection and review

    • Accommodates different learning styles

    • Socialises the learning and the learner

  • Integration – knowledge, social, cultural

  • Lifelong learning – information explosion

  • Inter-professional and interdisciplinary approaches

  • Links teaching, learning and research

  • Employability/professional body requirements

  • Develops entrepreneurial mindset


‘….leaving behind the dusty lecture halls, to find out about our subject….done through interaction with other students and academics, and evidence found in places – books, the internet, and the big wide world itself’


Group task
Group Task about our subject….done through interaction with other students and academics, and evidence found in places – books, the internet, and the big wide world itself’

Background: a group of academic staff have decided to make the university’s stance on enterprise education explicit to the first-year intake. They have asked your team to design a poster that explains (sells?) enterprise to the students. The poster will be displayed in the student common-room during the first three weeks of term.

Task: design an outline poster (a draft)

  • Present your ideas to a panel of students (3 minutes maximum)


Enterprise skills are defined as
Enterprise skills are defined as: about our subject….done through interaction with other students and academics, and evidence found in places – books, the internet, and the big wide world itself’

  • Creation of new ideas, innovation

  • Recognising strengths (individual and collective)

  • Effective communication

  • Undertaking research (demand, competitors, trends etc)

  • Networking

  • Leadership, managing others

  • Seizing opportunities and managing risk

  • Project management

  • Organisation and planning

  • Successful negotiation........persuasion

  • Societal responsibility, ‘making a difference’

    Familiar?....EBL?


Motivation
Motivation about our subject….done through interaction with other students and academics, and evidence found in places – books, the internet, and the big wide world itself’

  • Authentic

  • Realistic challenge

  • Positive attitude towards discipline - passion

  • Supportive

  • Detailed, timely feedback

  • Shared learning

    • Successes

    • Mistakes and risks

  • Social learning

  • Builds confidence


Personal iife skills
Personal (Iife) skills about our subject….done through interaction with other students and academics, and evidence found in places – books, the internet, and the big wide world itself’

  • Taking and accepting responsibility - autonomy

  • Ethics, empathy, tolerance, honesty

  • Reliability

  • Creative problem-solving

  • Balancing creativity with resilience

  • Balancing work with life

  • Adaptability

  • Entrpreneurial mindset


Employability
Employability about our subject….done through interaction with other students and academics, and evidence found in places – books, the internet, and the big wide world itself’

  • Team working/building and leadership

  • Inter-personal skills

    • Negotiation

    • Decision making

    • Handling conflict

    • Sharing

  • Communication skills

    • Presentation, explaining, questioning

    • Networking

  • Managing projects and meetings

  • Evaluation, judgement, appraisal

  • Entrepreneurship, ‘intrapreneurship’ and social enterprise


Attitudes are also important to employers
attitudes are also important to employers…. about our subject….done through interaction with other students and academics, and evidence found in places – books, the internet, and the big wide world itself’

Interested, enthusiastic and flexible graduate….and….keen, motivated and ambitious individuals….

are frequently encountered phrases and the words

dedicated passionate self-starter energetic

systematic committed

BioSciences Subject Centre Newsletter

2007 www.heacademy.ac.uk


The centre of the teaching and learning process must become the student. In the words of Heidegger, “the teacher is ahead of his apprentices in this alone, that he has still far more to learn than they....he has to learn to let them learn”.

(Prof Lewis Elton, THES, 21 July 2000)



Research
Research a fire

I originally thought research was a big thing to do, it required lots of people and money. I thought it was scientists and stuff. I know it’s not now. I know I can do it. It’s about being critical, looking at what other people have done, then finding a methodology and asking questions.

First Year Student, Early Childhood Studies, Northumbria University, UK


Research1
Research a fire

I soon learned that it did not require a great brain to do original research. One must be highly motivated, exercise good judgement, have intelligence, imagination, determination and a little luck. One of the most important qualities in doing research, I found, was to ask the right questions at the right time.

Julius Axelrod (Nobel prize winning scientist)


  • You a firego out of a PBL with your head buzzing, rather than feeling you’ve just passively sat there

  • The discussions....it’s amazing! Hearing all the different viewpoints....seeing how things develop

  • When you see someone else is on the same track and you’re all learning the same thing, that can give you a big confidence boost, it pushes you a bit more because you want your work to be just as good as theirs

  • You have responsibility to the whole group, not just yourself, everyone has to pull together


I have developed my skills, it has given me confidence to put my ideas forward

I am more confident working with people Who I am not familiar with and I found out I’m more creative than I thought!

This has given me experience and confidence to take into my final year at university and my professional life. This module has had a huge impact on me

I feel more confident in my own ideas and having the ability to lead a group and create a concept that others buy into

Students talking about enterprise education


  • My current area of EBL activity put my ideas forward

  • ‘Transforming Enterprise Education’

  • Supporting the development of a positive attitude to innovation, personal growth and professional development

  • Development, integration and embedding across all subject areas and levels – beyond discrete activities and ‘bolt-on’ models

  • Engagement with experts and professionals, developing relationships and forming partnerships

  • Enquiry-based learning approach – active, student-centred, reflective


The Institute for Enterprise – a familiar approach....? put my ideas forward

Core Team of ‘experts’

Enterprise Pioneers – specific areas of expertise

Small-scale teaching and learning projects

Entrepreneur in Residence

Engagement with external partners

CETL alliance

Student Pioneers and interns

A FAVOURABLE CLIMATE – the ‘enterprising university’ - but there are risks and challenges


  • An Enquiry-Based Approach to Enterprise put my ideas forward

  • Collaborative, co-operative learning environment

  • Experiential

  • Challenging - uses real-life scenarios and problems

  • Investigative - stimulates deep exploration of the subject

  • Multi-disciplinary as well as subject-specific

  • Facilitated - guided by experts and supported by peer group

  • Utilises existing knowledge and develops new knowledge

  • Develops a range of skills, attitudes, values


  • Developing and embedding enterprise in the curriculum.... put my ideas forward

  • Working as individuals and in teams, developing networks and communities

  • Recognising individual and collective talents, capabilities, strengths, limitations

  • Excitement of discovery, generating new ideas , passion, creativity

  • Understanding business and organisational processes

  • Opportunities to develop, practice and apply skills

  • Reward and recognition for hard work

  • Celebrating successes and learning from failure, developing resilience and self-reliance

  • Facilitation, inspiration, competition

  • CONFIDENCE to take the key, unlock potential

STUDENTS AND TEACHERS



The important thing is not to stop questioning. Curiosity has its own reason for existing.

Albert Einstein


Encourages us to ask questions that we both know we want the answers to....

....stimulates the innate curiosity to compare home cultures and diversity between methods of daily living to opposing world views on current affairs....

As a group, the understanding becomes clear....

Each person brings to the table a different world view, and different world knowledge, thus compelling explorations of unfamiliar cultures....

Using student reflections in response:


‘….leaving behind the dusty lecture halls, to find out about our subject….done through interaction with other students and academics, and evidence found in places – books, the internet, and the big wide world itself’


The world is but a school of inquiry michel de montaigne
‘The world is but a school of inquiry’ about our subject….done through interaction with other students and academics, and evidence found in places – books, the internet, and the big wide world itself’(Michel de Montaigne)


Exploring a new learning landscape….volunteering in Peru 2009

My home for six weeks in September-October 2009

Zapallal shanty town, near Lima, Peru


[email protected] 2009

Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning

Leeds Metropolitan University, UK

Publications, case-studies and resources

www.leedsmet.ac.uk/enterprise

www.manchester.ac.uk/ceebl

May 2009


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