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AFRICA’s UNENDING CONFLICTS. By MATESO L. Materne (ALYM) Feb 23-2013. Hundreds and thousands of people have been slaughtered from a number of conflicts and civil wars, and “there have been over 9 million refugees and internally displaced people from conflicts in Africa”. UNHCR.

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Africa s unending conflicts

AFRICA’s UNENDING CONFLICTS

By MATESO L. Materne (ALYM)

Feb 23-2013


Hundreds and thousands of people have been slaughtered from a number of conflicts and civil wars,

and “there have been over 9 million refugees and internally displaced people from conflicts in Africa”. UNHCR


Ask yourself a question : a number of conflicts and civil wars,

“ What If this scale of destruction and fighting was in Europe ? “


Why these conflicts
Why these conflicts ? a number of conflicts and civil wars,

There are a number of reasons :

  • Internal battles to gain control of an existing state

  • Ethnic groups seeking greater autonomy or striving to create an independent state for themselves .

  • Failed states.

  • IGNORANCE !


Respects
Respects… a number of conflicts and civil wars,


A look at some of the recent conflicts
A look at some of the recent conflicts : a number of conflicts and civil wars,

ANGOLA ( civil war )

Casualties: more than 500,000 killed and over 1 M internally displaced .

Duration :1975 -2002

Savimbi militarily trained in China

Found UNITA in 1966

Fought along MPLA for the independence of Angola

Jonas SAVIMBI


  • Santos , a number of conflicts and civil wars,Comunist president of the republic and president of MPLA : 1979-present

  • Peace accord and free elections:1992

    Savimbi 40 %

    Dos santos 49 %.

  • Death of Savimbi envoy ( his VP )…No 2nd round!

  • Death of Savimbi: 2002

José Eduardo dos Santos


Congo drc
CONGO(DRC) a number of conflicts and civil wars,

KIVU conflict

General in FARDC

2004 : formed CNDP

cause : marginalization of his minority people and threat caused by FDLR

2009: arrested in Rwanda

and CNDP became a political party

2012 : M23 movement

Late 2012 : withdrawal following kampala meeting

Gen . Laurent NKUNDA


  • Nkunda a number of conflicts and civil wars, total army : 6000-8000 men

  • Congolese total army : 144,000-159,000 men

  • MONUSCO : 16,000men

  • Death toll : 5.4 million people 1998-2008.

    ranked the world’s deadliest conflict since World War II!!

  • Human right crimes

CHILD soldiers


Rape a number of conflicts and civil wars,

Pillaging

“DRC …When natural resources get to be a curse “


Car central african rep
CAR (Central African Rep.) a number of conflicts and civil wars,

  • 2003 : Coup d’etat by the current president Francois Bozize .

  • 2004-2007 : CAR Bush war .

  • 2007 : Peace agreement with the rebels integration.

  • 2012 : conflicts resumed . Cause : Government trying to play smart.

  • 2013 : Peace agreement but keep the seized territorry.

Francois BOZIZE .


Kenya
KENYA a number of conflicts and civil wars,

2007-2008 post- presidential election crisis

  • Contesters :

    Mwai KIBAKI (inc. president) vs

    Raila ODINGA (opposition)

  • Early results : ODINGA’s victory

  • Official results : KIBAKI victory.

  • Within minutes VIOLENCE broke out …

Mwai KIBAKI

Raila ODINGA


  • casualties: a number of conflicts and civil wars,

    Death toll : more than a 1000 people

    Displacement : More than 600,000 people

  • End of violence : early 2008. agreement on power sharing followed by creation of PM post .


Zimbabwe
ZIMBABWE a number of conflicts and civil wars,

2008 Election crisis

  • Probably the most hated human being alive …

  • In office : 1987 –present

    ( tech. since independence 1980 as PM )

  • Present GAMAL Abdel Nasser (Egypt 1956-1970 ) ?

  • …………

Robert MUGABE

NASSER


  • Land reform policies a number of conflicts and civil wars,

    White minority : < 1% of the country’s population .

    Owned : 47% of the country’s arable land .

    70% of the best farming land .

    2000 : MUGABE distibuted the land to the black community

    ….thus the start of the so called international community sanctions .

Aftermath : the once prosperous agricultural industry suffered badly ….and the country went into a deep mess,

Food insecurity


Hyper-inflation a number of conflicts and civil wars,

Homelessness


  • 2008 elections : a number of conflicts and civil wars,

    1st round results delayed for a month :

    MUGABE 43 %

    TSVANGIRAI 48 %

  • Disappointed MUGABE started going after his opponent’ supporters .

  • TSVANGIRAI withdrawal

    2nd round : MUGABE 83 %

    TSVANGIRAI 9 % !

  • Political violence

  • Power sharing , TSVANGIRAI appointed as PM.

Robert MUGABE

Morgan TSVANGIRAI


Lesson learnt
Lesson learnt ? a number of conflicts and civil wars,

  • 1st time accident

  • 2nd time carelessness

  • 3rd time ? IGNORANCE .


Cote d ivoire
COTE D’IVOIRE a number of conflicts and civil wars,

  • 2000 : Gbagbo’s victory over Gen. Robert Guéï , the latter refused .

    street protests bring gbagbo to power .

  • 2002-2005 : civil war due to discremination of the notherners mostly foreign descent .

  • 2005 : Cease –fire and peace agreement

Laurent GBAGBO

Alasanne OUATTARA



MALI (6 years ).

NOTHERN MALI conflicts

  • For sometime Tuaregs from the north had formed a rebellion (MNLA) …seeking for independence .

  • March 2012 : coup d’etat by angry low rank officials grouped in CNRDR

    cause : president’s handling of the crisis in the north.

    coup leader : Cap.Amadou SANOGO

Frm pres. Amadou TOURE

Capt. SANOGO


Consequences : (6 years ).

  • April 2012 : Touareg rebels backed by islamist group ANSAR DINE took over the north and declare independence

  • ANSAR DINE imposition of strict sharia law

  • Misunderstanding between ANSAR DINE and MNLA

  • ANSAR DINE take -over

TOUAREGS

ANSAR DINE


Foreign intervention (6 years ).

  • January 2013 : French military (major player )

  • AU forces …

  • February 2013 : Nothern MALI retaken ….


Religion
Religion (6 years ).



NIGERIA’s BOKO HARAM (6 years ).

“Since its founding in 2001, they have been responsible for between 3,000 to 10,000 deaths.” :wikipedia


THANKS…….. (6 years ).

There is still hope ….The Future is bright


References (6 years ). :

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angolan_Civil_War

  • http://www.responsibilitytoprotect.org/index.php/crises/crisis-in-zimbabwe

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kivu_Conflict

  • http://www.globalissues.org/article/87/the-democratic-republic-of-congo


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