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MSU Fuel Production from Wastewater Rafael Hernandez, Todd French, Mark Bricka, and Mark White Dave C. Swalm School of Chemical Engineering Mississippi State University. Methyl Alcohol. Biodiesel (FAMEs). Glycerine. Biodiesel Production. Base (NaOH). LIPIDS:

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MSU Fuel Production from Wastewater

Rafael Hernandez, Todd French, Mark Bricka, and Mark White

Dave C. Swalm School of Chemical Engineering

Mississippi State University

Sustainable Research Energy Center


Methyl

Alcohol

Biodiesel

(FAMEs)

Glycerine

Biodiesel Production

Base

(NaOH)

LIPIDS:

Plant Oils and/or Animal Fats

(Triglycerides

and Free Fatty Acids)

+

+

10 to 1 Production of

Biodiesel over Glycerine (v/v)

Biodiesel

Ready

For Use

In Diesel

Engines

Glycerine Used

for Chemical

Production or

Pharmaceutical Use

&

Sustainable Research Energy Center


Biodiesel Industry: Present and Future Challenges

  • Total US BD usage is ~75 Mgal/yr

  • US uses ~75 Bgal/yr of Petro-Diesel

  • Total oleochemical production capacity is ~500 Mgal/yr

  • More than 70% of current biodiesel production cost is the feedstock

  • There is a glut of crude glycerine in the market

  • Current price of crude glycerine is ~$0.01/lb compared to $0.60/lb in 2000.

  • Many biodiesel producers are storing crude glycerine

Sustainable Research Energy Center


Cracking of Wastewater Treatment Solids:

An Innovative Industrial Feedstock

Sewage Plant Sludges have ~25% Lipids

Literally Billions of Pounds Per Year Pose a Significant Disposal Challenge

Sustainable Research Energy Center


Primary Sludge

Headworks

Forced

Main

Influent blending

Grit Removal

Grit

Dewatering

&

Thickening

Primary

Clarification

Influent

Wastewater

Biosolids

Influent

Primary

Solids

Dewatering

Finished Effluent

to Discharge

Secondary

Clarification

Aeration Tank

Biogas

Effluent

Thickened

Waste Sludge

Air

Thickening

Waste

Sludge

Recycled Biomass Solids

Anaerobic

Digestor

Sustainable Research Energy Center


Sludge extractions sludge from conventional wwtf
Sludge Extractions(Sludge from conventional WWTF)

  • Primary and secondary sludges from the Tuscaloosa Wastewater Treatment Facility have been extracted and converted into fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel)

  • Yields of 1 gallon FAMEs/100 lbs of sludge and 2 gallons of FAMEs/100 lbs of sludge were obtained for secondary and primary sludge, respectively.


Biodiesel Yield Projections

  • For a City of 100,000 people:

    • 125,000 gallons of neat BD can be produced per year

  • Need a city of 16 M people to produce 20 M gallons BD

  • If 70% of the total US population is used, then:

    • 260 M gallons of neat BD can be produced per year

  • The proposed process has the potential to generate 1.5 billion gallons of biodiesel (using 70% of the US population)


Wastewater Treatment Facilities:

A New Source of Crude

WTFs could be modified to generate large quantities of lipids for the

Production of Fuels and Chemicals. There is at least a WTF in every

State of the Nation

Sustainable Research Energy Center


Objectives
Objectives

  • Transform the daily disposal of industrial and domestic organics into large quantities of lipids using micro organisms

  • Integrate the sugar, and thermochemical platforms for producing biodiesel, JP-Fuels, gasoline, and chemicals

Sustainable Research Energy Center


Envisioned Process: The New Biorefineries

Sustainable Research Energy Center


Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to microbial oil

Carbon Source

Lipid %

Dextrose

14.2

Xylose

5.4

Glycerol

19.0

Dextrose +

Glycerol

16.0

Xylose +

Glycerol

11.8

Xylose +

Dextrose

16.8

Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Microbial Oil


The yeast
The Yeast

Rhodotorula glutinis

  • Means “red glutton”

  • Aerobic, oleaginous (oil-producing) yeast

  • High methyl ester yield1,2

  • Breaks down carbon oxygen demand (COD) in waste streams2,3

  • Granger, L-M; et al. Biotech. & Bioengineering, 1993, 42, 1151-1156

  • Zheng, S; et al. Bioresource Tech., 2005, 96, 1522-1524

  • Xue, F; et al. Process Biochem., 2006, 41, 1699-1702


Fatty acid composition

Fatty Acid

Yeast

Rape

Canola

Tallow

Soy

Caproic (6:0)

11.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Myristic (14:0)

0.0

0.0

0.0

3.0

0.0

Palmitic (16:0)

45.0

2.2

4.0

23.3

9.9

Stearic (18:0)

21.0

0.9

2.4

17.9

3.6

Oleic (18:1)

23.0

12.6

65.0

38.0

19.1

Linoleic (18:2)

0.0

12.1

17.3

0.0

55.6

Linolenic (18:3)

0.0

8.0

7.8

0.0

10.2

Elcosenoic (20:1)

0.0

7.4

1.3

0.0

0.2

Behenic (22:0)

0.0

0.7

0.4

0.0

0.3

Erucic (22:1)

0.0

49.9

0.1

0.0

0.0

Fatty Acid Composition


Growth of r glutinis and c curvatus on sewage
Growth of R. glutinis and C. curvatus on Sewage


The yeast1
The Yeast

  • Oleaginous microorganisms can accumulate more than 50% of their dry weight in oil.

  • Autoclave wastewater does not contain compounds that inhibit the growth of oleaginous microorganisms.

  • Secondary sludge oil yield may be increase by a factor of 8 (8 gallons of FAMEs/100 lbs sludge) using these microbes

  • Wastewater treatment facilities has the potential of generating 7 billions gallons of oil per year


Regional, National, and

International Impacts

  • Significant reduction (30%-70%) of phosphorus and nitrate in the extracted sludge, and consequently, minimization of eutrofication episodes.

  • Production of billions of gallons of oil for producing biodiesel and other green fuels

  • Price stabilization of oils marketed for producing biodiesel

  • More biodiesel production and less distances travel for transporting fuel reduce air pollutants emissions and public health risks

  • Generation of Class A Biosolids

  • A source of oil not competing with the food market

  • Provide developing countries with the reason for building secondary treatment plants – pays to treat sewage


QUESTIONS?

Sustainable Research Energy Center


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